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Home Life The Slander Trade - The New York Instances

The Slander Trade – The New York Instances

1: The Stain

At first look, the web sites seem amateurish.

They’ve names like, and Photographs are badly cropped. Grammar and spelling are afterthoughts. They’re clunky and text-heavy, as in the event that they’re meant to be learn by machines, not people.

However don’t underestimate their energy. When somebody assaults you on these so-called gripe websites, the outcomes may be devastating. Earlier this 12 months, we wrote a few lady in Toronto who poisoned the reputations of dozens of her perceived enemies by posting lies about them.

To evaluate the slander’s impression, we wrote a software program program to obtain each submit from a dozen of essentially the most energetic criticism websites: greater than 150,000 posts about some 47,000 individuals. Then we arrange an internet crawler that searched Google and Bing for hundreds of the individuals who had been attacked.

For about one-third of the individuals, the nasty posts appeared on the primary pages of their outcomes. For greater than half, the gripe websites confirmed up on the prime of their picture outcomes.

These have been the Google picture outcomes for “aaron krolik nyc.”

Be aware: Some picture outcomes have been blurred for privateness causes.

Typically serps go a step additional than merely itemizing hyperlinks; they show what they take into account essentially the most related phrases about no matter you’re looking for.

One lady in Ohio was the topic of so many adverse posts that Bing declared in daring on the prime of her search outcomes that she “is a liar and a cheater” — the identical method it states that Barack Obama was the forty fourth president of the USA. For roughly 500 of the 6,000 individuals we looked for, Google steered including the phrase “cheater” to a search of their names.

The unverified claims are on obscure, ridiculous-looking websites, however serps give them a veneer of credibility. Posts from seem in Google outcomes alongside Fb pages and LinkedIn profiles — or, in my case, articles in The New York Instances.

That may be unhealthy sufficient for individuals whose reputations have been savaged. However the issue is all the more serious as a result of it’s so exhausting to repair. And that’s largely due to the key, symbiotic relationship between these facilitating slander and people getting paid to take away it.

2: The Unfold

The posts I created featured an ungainly selfie and described me as a “loser who will do something for consideration.” We posted a model of the identical insult on 5 gripe websites. Every selfie included a singular watermark that allowed us to trace it if it confirmed up someplace new. For a picture posted to, for instance, we hid the area title and the date within the file code.

# Aaron Krolik | New York | NYC

## Aaron Krolik is a whole loser. Will do ANYTHING for consideration. ANYTHING. Aaron Krolik. New York. NYC

watermark textual 1.29.21

convert -size 450×200 -background none -fill white -gravity middle caption:”BUSTED” -shade 600×100 WATERMARK_FILE.png

composite -dissolve 50% -gravity middle WATERMARK_FILE.png aaron.jpg aaronbusted.jpg

convert aaronbusted.jpg -strip aaronbusted.jpg

exiftool aaronbusted.jpg

posted: 2:40pm east

The posts unfold rapidly. Inside two hours, the Cheaterboard one had popped up on Inside a month, the unique 5 posts had spawned 21 copies on 15 websites.

What was the purpose of copying the posts? A giant clue have been the advertisements that appeared subsequent to them, providing assist eradicating reputation-tarnishing content material.

The submit on featured this advert for status administration.

Be aware: Some figuring out info and profanity have been redacted.

We contacted all the websites that copied the unique posts. Solely two responded, and just one individual consented to an interview: Cyrus Sullivan, who runs

Mr. Sullivan, 37, of Portland, Ore., has been within the complaint-site enterprise since 2008, when he began It was impressed by his personal expertise; in his senior 12 months on the College of Oregon, he mentioned, he had intercourse with a girl who belatedly informed him that she had herpes.

“I believed there must be a technique to warn individuals about one thing like that,” Mr. Sullivan mentioned. let individuals anonymously submit unverified details about individuals who they mentioned had sexually transmitted ailments.

Mr. Sullivan mentioned he hadn’t made a lot cash till 2012, when attracted nationwide media consideration. Anderson Cooper had a daytime discuss present on the time, and he did a section dressing down Mr. Sullivan and others who ran criticism websites. Mr. Sullivan’s internet visitors soared, and posts quickly flooded the positioning.

Cyrus SullivanThe New York Instances

After a few stints in jail — amongst different issues, he was convicted of sending dying threats to a girl and of throwing Sriracha Doritos into the face of law enforcement officials, “utilizing the spicy mud as a weapon, like pepper spray,” in line with a courtroom submitting — he began in 2018. It billed itself as “a foul speech search engine and internet archive” that captured terrible issues written about individuals on different websites, corresponding to my submit on

Mr. Sullivan informed us that copying content material was an effective way to lure individuals to his websites. (He mentioned he didn’t really feel unhealthy about spreading unverified slander. “Train kids to not discuss to strangers, then educate them to not consider what they learn on the web,” he mentioned.)

However there was a monetary incentive as properly. Mr. Sullivan had began a reputation-management service to assist individuals get “undesirable info” about themselves faraway from their search engine outcomes. The “gold package deal” value $699.99. For these clients, Mr. Sullivan would alter the pc code underlying the offending posts, instructing serps to disregard them.

3: The Safecracker

Some reputation-management corporations use adversarial techniques to get posts taken down. However cozier relationships are the norm.

For instance, advertisements for seem on a dozen outstanding gripe web sites, and have been connected to a few of the posts about me. 247Removal’s proprietor is Heidi Glosser, 38. She mentioned she didn’t understand how her advertisements had ended up on these websites.

Heidi Glosser

Heidi GlosserThe New York Instances

Ms. Glosser expenses $750 or extra per submit elimination, which provides as much as hundreds of {dollars} for many of her shoppers. To get posts eliminated, she mentioned, she typically pays an “administrative price” to the gripe website’s webmaster. We requested her whether or not this was extortion. “I can’t actually provide you with a direct reply,” she mentioned.

On the primary web page of Ms. Glosser’s personal Google search outcomes is a hyperlink to a courtroom ruling associated to her 2003 conviction for housebreaking and safecracking. “It’s not associated to me,” she mentioned. She urged us to do a background examine on her, which confirmed her involvement.

Ms. Glosser mentioned she had determined to attempt to assist individuals enhance their on-line reputations in 2018, after she watched an 11-minute documentary about revenge porn. The movie targeted on Scott Breitenstein, a former plumber who ran websites internet hosting nude images of individuals posted with out their consent.

Websites managed by Mr. Breitenstein additionally have been venues for unverified allegations about cheaters, scams, predators, deadbeats and “potential johns.” After the documentary got here out, Mr. Breitenstein informed enterprise companions that he had bought his web sites. He didn’t reply to requests for remark.

Ms. Glosser mentioned her objective was to help victims of Mr. Breitenstein and his ilk.

Ms. Glosser used to reside close to Mr. Breitenstein in Dayton, Ohio. She mentioned that was a coincidence. “Dayton isn’t as small as everybody thinks it’s,” she mentioned. She mentioned she doesn’t know Mr. Breitenstein.

Why, then, have been Ms. Glosser and her deceased spouse pleasant with members of the Breitenstein household on Fb?

Ms. Glosser wouldn’t say.

4. Marilyn Monroe’s Autograph

We observed that the identical advert saved showing on the proliferating posts about me being a loser. It was a easy textual content advert for one thing referred to as “Take away Cheaters Websites Contents.”

Most sidebar advertisements are programmatic. Which means they’re served up by an advert community with no involvement by the individuals who run a website, they usually change each time you go to. That wasn’t the case right here. The RepZe advertisements have been everlasting fixtures, written into the web sites’ coding.

When Kashmir referred to as RepZe, a girl figuring out herself as Sofia refused to reply questions and mentioned to e-mail the corporate as an alternative. No person responded to the emails.

After I reached out to RepZe through a type on its website to ask about eradicating one of many posts about me, Sofia referred to as me. She mentioned that for $1,500 the submit can be eliminated inside 24 hours. The elimination would include a “lifetime assure,” she mentioned.

She inspired me to behave rapidly. “I don’t wish to scare you, however these posts can unfold,” she warned.

At this level, we figured that when somebody paid an organization like RepZe to get a submit eliminated, RepZe then paid the criticism website to delete it. However our understanding turned out to be incomplete at greatest.

RepZe claims to be primarily based in a Denver suburb. However the firm isn’t registered for enterprise in Colorado.

The handle on its web site belongs to Anytime Mailbox, which expenses $9.99 per 30 days to create the looks of an workplace, accepting mail on somebody’s behalf after which scanning and emailing it to the consumer. (Anytime’s chief govt, Matt Going, mentioned he couldn’t reply questions on RepZe, besides to say it was now not a buyer.)

The three individuals listed as RepZe workers have scant on-line presences and don’t appear to exist. One web page on the web site features a message from RepZe’s chief govt, recognized as “Mr. M. Moore.” On the backside of the message is what seems to be his signature. Upon nearer inspection, it’s Marilyn Monroe’s autograph.

RepZe has promotional movies on YouTube. The individuals within the movies, together with those that claimed to be workers or clients, are paid actors. (We recognized them on a freelancing website, Fiverr, the place they charged as little as $25 to seem in movies.)

This video featured “Matt from RepZe.”

That is the promotional reel for the actor who performed “Matt.”

We tracked down precise clients of RepZe. All relayed the identical fundamental story. They’d employed the corporate to take away adverse posts about them, which it rapidly did. However then RepZe would threaten that, absent swift fee of the hundreds of {dollars} the purchasers had agreed to pay, the posts would reappear and multiply.

“The content material can be restored,” a RepZe consultant wrote in a textual content to at least one buyer, who posted screenshots of the change on Fb. “We try to assist. You are attempting to piss my ass off.”

Then, months later, the posts would reappear.

One disgruntled buyer created underneath the pseudonym Greg Saint. He mentioned he had paid RepZe $4,000 in 2019 to take away two adverse posts. Months later, he mentioned, copies of the posts started reappearing on-line, and he suspected RepZe was accountable. He created to reveal the individual he thought was actually behind the service: a 28-year-old internet developer in India, Vikram Parmar.

5. A Clue within the Metadata

We had first heard Mr. Parmar’s title months earlier, from a California software program developer, Aaron Greenspan.

Mr. Greenspan runs, which posts courtroom paperwork and makes individuals’s prison information simpler to seek out. He mentioned a type of individuals, a convicted assassin, had tried to destroy his and his household’s on-line reputations.

Mr. Greenspan might have paid to get the posts eliminated, however he didn’t like the concept of ransom. As a substitute, he got down to unmask whoever was behind the websites and the reputation-management corporations. This was simpler mentioned than accomplished.

“You don’t know the place it’s, who runs it, who hosts it,” he mentioned. “That’s how they evade any accountability.”

The web sites use what are often called privateness proxy companies to cover who owns them and the place they’re hosted. Mr. Greenspan combed via digital clues and tracked down lawsuits involving the websites — which he started cataloging on PlainSite — to map out the trade. He concluded that many websites gave the impression to be owned by a small handful of individuals. Each time he received in contact with one in every of them, that individual would level him to different individuals and say they have been the true unhealthy actors.

Mr. Greenspan received in contact with RepZe, which had advertisements subsequent to lots of the posts attacking him. He pretended to be an buyer. RepZe gave him a quote of $14,800 to take away 17 posts. The corporate despatched a contract. Mr. Greenspan checked out the doc’s metadata and located “Vikram Parmar” listed because the creator.



File title:

Adverse Content material Elimination Contract with Aaron.docx.pdf

Doc kind:

PDF doc

File dimension:

400 KB (400,325 bytes)

PDF model:


Web page rely:


Web page dimension:

8.5 x 14 inches



Vikram Parmar


PDF Producer:

Microsoft® Phrase for Workplace 365

Content material creator:

Microsoft® Phrase for Workplace 365

Creation date:

Apr 2, 2019 at 1:25 PM

Modification date:

Apr 2, 2019 at 1:25 PM

A fast Google search revealed that Mr. Parmar confronted prison expenses. In 2014, he had created a pretend web site that charged individuals cash to use for nonexistent jobs with India’s Central Bureau of Investigation. Prosecutors in New Delhi charged him and a collaborator with prison conspiracy. (Mr. Parmar claimed that an “unscrupulous consumer” had employed him to create what he thought was a legit web site. The case is pending.)

Mr. Greenspan despatched Mr. Parmar a message on Skype in September 2019. They started to talk. (Mr. Greenspan confirmed us screenshots of the chats.) He demanded that Mr. Parmar delete posts about him without cost. Mr. Parmar eliminated one, on, after which their dialog grew to become friendlier.

Mr. Parmar complained to Mr. Greenspan concerning the greediness of the house owners of different criticism websites. Considered one of them was a man in Ohio named Scott Breitenstein, who Mr. Parmar mentioned owned a whole bunch of websites that stole unique content material from “legit” ones.

Mr. Parmar informed Mr. Greenspan that he’d needed to pay Mr. Breitenstein to get copycat posts taken down. He mentioned Mr. Breitenstein had instructed him to ship checks to a different individual. Her title was Heidi Glosser.

6. One of many Gents

We reached Mr. Parmar through Skype in February. He was on trip within the Indian seaside city of Goa. We mentioned we have been engaged on an article concerning the reputation-management trade. He denied involvement, saying he was “an actual property builder and in addition engaged on some authorities tasks.”

Then we laid out what we knew.

We had linked Mr. Parmar not simply to RepZe but additionally to a different cleanup service, As well as, we had discovered that he was concerned with,,, and All have been listed by RepZe or RemoveReports as locations from which they might take away content material.

At the very least one of many websites had been registered underneath Mr. Parmar’s title. Others have been linked to him in several methods. Some have the identical Google advert account; some share IP addresses; some had been registered to Mr. Parmar’s e-mail handle.



Area Identify:


Registry Area ID:


Registrar WHOIS Server:

Registrar URL:

Up to date Date:


Creation Date:


Registrar Registration Expiration Date:



BigRock Options Ltd.

Registrar IANA ID:


Area Standing:

clientTransferProhibited #clientTransferProhibited

Registry Registrant ID:

Not Accessible From Registry

Registrant Identify:

vikram parmar

Registrant Group:

Registrant Avenue:


Registrant Metropolis:


Registrant State/Province:


Registrant Postal Code:


Registrant Nation:


In different phrases, Mr. Parmar appeared to be operating websites that produced slander and operating websites that made cash by eradicating that slander.

Mr. Parmar sounded uneasy. He mentioned anybody might use anybody else’s e-mail handle to register a website. Then he admitted to doing a little reputation-management work. Then he requested that his title not be used on this article. Then he steered different individuals within the trade whom we should always examine as an alternative of him. (The checklist included Mr. Breitenstein and Ms. Glosser.)

“You’re just about correct however concentrating on a incorrect man,” he wrote in a Skype message. “I’m simply mediator,” he added. “I’m one of many gentleman.”

Mr. Parmar resurfaced in April, about 20 minutes after we emailed RepZe looking for remark for this text. In messages over Skype, he mentioned he didn’t personal the criticism websites however was offering them companies, together with serving to them enhance their efficiency on serps.

Why have been his e-mail handle and Google advert accounts linked to the criticism websites? Mr. Parmar didn’t have a coherent rationalization.

7. My Experiment Ends

Three months after my experiment began, my search outcomes have been struggling the results. Bing helpfully beneficial including “loser” to a seek for “Aaron Krolik.” If you Googled my title, Cheaters.information was on the prime of the picture outcomes.

Be aware: Some figuring out info has been redacted.

There’s no method for me to delete the posts that I wrote; the slander websites don’t permit that. Primarily based on estimates offered by elimination companies, it could value me about $20,000 to get the posts taken down — and even then, extra posts would possibly seem of their place.

There’s one other technique to reduce the posts’ impression. In sure circumstances, Google will take away dangerous content material from people’ search outcomes, together with hyperlinks to “websites with exploitative elimination practices.” If a website expenses to take away posts, you possibly can ask Google to not checklist it.

Google didn’t promote this coverage extensively, and few victims of on-line slander appear conscious that it’s an choice. That’s partially as a result of once you Google methods to wash up your search outcomes, Google’s resolution is buried underneath advertisements for reputation-management companies like RepZe.

I finally discovered the Google type. I submitted a declare to have one URL eliminated. “Your e-mail has been despatched to our group,” Google informed me.

Three days later, I acquired an e-mail from Google saying the URL can be faraway from my search outcomes. Later that day, it was gone. I submitted the 25 different hyperlinks. They have been eliminated, too, however pictures from gripe websites saved reappearing in my search outcomes.

Different individuals who have used Google’s type reported comparable experiences: It largely works, however is much less efficient for pictures. And if in case you have an attacker who received’t cease writing posts about you, it’s virtually ineffective. The slander stays.

Mr. Parmar, a self-described professional in methods to affect search outcomes, has lately taken steps to burnish his personal status. Across the time that we began making an attempt to achieve him, articles started showing on-line casting him in glowing phrases.

One piece gushed about his “rags-to-riches story.” One other, on, mentioned his web-marketing enterprise generated $2 million a 12 months in income. Mr. Parmar was quoted as saying he had purchased automobiles for himself and his household.

“I reside like a BOSS,” he mentioned.


  1. Not a bad article, I feel that it could have included more information. Like how the Google removal form rarely produced a permanent result as it pertains to Foul Speakers.


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